Spokes Submission to NZTA on SH76 Brougham Street upgrade
v03Final Spokes Submission to NZTA on Brougham Street – SH76 Changes starting 2022.docx
NB Where I cannot replicate the submission exactly – ie images and highlighting – I have commented on the difference by using bold italics like this.
Spokes supports the overarching principle of redesigning Brougham Street to account for expected future traffic volumes and patterns. Spokes also supports much of the detail but we ask that the following points be considered as you progress to final design and subsequent build.
On balance Spokes supports the proposed changes to Brougham Street and offers to work with NZTA / Waka Kotahi and CCC if requested. Spokes strongly supports the inclusion of a separate shared pathway (or two) for active transport – the wider the better! Spokes asks that our submission be heeded.
Spokes notes that the proposal is silent on the “big picture” of discouraging road traffic and encouraging active transport in the face of the climate emergency acknowledged by government and local councils.
Where is the call and action to encourage rail freight which parallels Brougham Street for much of the route? NZTA / Waka Kotahi has a golden opportunity to encourage active transport with shared paths on both sides of Brougham Street – at the expense of one T2 lane if needed. Why not??
Where are the plans and actions to encourage people living in the outlying residential conurbations of Lincoln, Rolleston, Islington and Templeton etc. etc. out of private cars and onto public transport?
The crossing of Colombo Street and Brougham Streets is especially scary for pedestrians and cyclists. Much more needs to be done at this intersection, with an overbridge for those using active transport. Ask yourself the question – Would I let my unaccompanied 8-10- year old son / daughter/ grandson / granddaughter /niece / nephew use this crossing unaccompanied? If the answer is “no”, then the proposed design is not safe enough!
The seemingly arbitrary cut-off of documented changes at Opawa Rd ignores the linkage to Lyttelton, Sumner and other hillside suburbs. This linkage is especially important-to-cyclists. Spokes asks for an explanation (with detail) as to how cyclists can traverse safely and conveniently from the Brougham Street shared path(s) and onto these hillside suburbs.
Finally, a reminder that safety is the single most important factor for these proposed changes. The recent history is very poor. On https://www.nzta.govt.nz/assets/projects/sh76-brougham-street-upgrade/docs/sh76-brougham-street-upgrade-poster-what-we-know.pdf NZTA / Waka Kotahi state:
Crash statistics between 2011 and 2021 (between the Barrington overpass and Opawa Road intersection)
– 5 people died
– 40 people were seriously injured
– 25% of serious injuries involved a person walking or riding a bike
– 75% happened at intersections
Submission highlights the first 3 bullet points above.
https://blog.altaplanning.com/understanding-the-four-types-of-cyclists-112e1d2e9a1b categorises cyclists into four arbitrary – but very useful – groups:
1) Strong and Fearless: People willing to bicycle with limited or no bicycle-specific infrastructure
2) Enthused and Confident: People willing to bicycle if some bicycle-specific infrastructure is in place
3) Interested but Concerned: People willing to bicycle if high-quality bicycle infrastructure is in place
4) No Way, No How: People unwilling to bicycle even if high-quality bicycle infrastructure is in place
Various estimates have been made about the sizes of the various groups. These are almost always arbitrary and dependent on the circumstances. For example, familiarity will mean that a cyclist may be in Group 2 (Enthused and Confident) in their home town but in group 3 (Interested but Concerned) in a less familiar town. The original presentation of the groups had group 3 (Interested but Concerned) at up to 70% of the population.
Progress towards increasing the share of journeys undertaken by cycling needs to attract the group 3 (Interested but Concerned) people. Groups 1 (Strong and Fearless) and 2 (Enthused and Confident) are probably already cycling and if they are not cycling it is not because of the infrastructure. Group 4 (No Way, No How) users have made their minds up – as is their right.
Therefore, if one of the outcomes of the proposed work is more people cycling, the facilities offered have to be safer, more convenient and as direct as what is currently available. Spokes observes that because the proposed shared pathway on the southside ie hillside of Brougham Street is separated from vehicular traffic with clear crossing points it is suitable for both the Enthused and Confident and the Interested but Concerned. For the Strong and Fearless it will mean extra manoeuvring when travelling east to get to the south side of Brougham Street and then return to the north side to continue their journey.
For some Strong and Fearless cyclists this will not be an issue as they will prefer the improved safety for a marginally longer journey time. We expect that some current users of
Brougham Street will seek alternative routes.
At present there are no reliable estimates of expected cycle counts.
One of the best (as in factual and timely) sources would appear to be CCC’s cycle counters at
The numbers shown are the count for the last 7 days, where the detail can be found by
clicking on a data point on the map.
Submission includes screenshot of link above
The only current data capture point on Brougham Street is at its intersection with Collins St where NZTA is proposing a new overbridge as part of the Brougham Street redesign. The numbers shown at this point are during school holidays and would be greater during term when staff and pupils are accessing Spreydon School.
Anecdotal reports indicate that the number of active cyclists is continuing to grow, due we assume in no small part to the increasing network of major cycle routes.
Expanding on the Collins St / Brougham St intersection on the above map traffic history over the last three years is as follows:
Submission includes expansion of Collins Street data point as of 28/1/2022.
The key message is that traffic peaks have roughly doubled over this period (400 to 800 cycle movements per day).
The proposed work needs to consider cyclists from Beckenham, which has one of the highest shares of journeys undertaken by bike in New Zealand. A number of these journeys will be to access the central city. Colombo Street is the most direct route but numbers there are lower than Antigua Street indicating cyclists are travelling out of their most direct route to join a cycle path. Part of this problem is likely the perceived danger of the crossing of Brougham Street on Colombo Street. It is difficult to design a level intersection that provides a good level of service to motorised transport and cyclists and pedestrians. Grade separation would work better so Spokes suggests that a further overbridge is added to make this intersection work better for all forms of transport.
Consultation with CCC
Spokes asks that NZTA / Waka Kotahi ASAP initiate and subsequently maintain strong and transparent liaison and consultation with CCC whose roads will bear the changed traffic pattern caused by NZTA’s changes.
CCC are already aware of the proposed Brougham Street changes as evidenced by https://youtu.be/HRYIOAqqcJg, a recording made on 27.01.22 of CCC Councillor meeting. IT is titled “Draft submission on SH76 Brougham Street upgrade”. CCC meetings and agendas are also available online.
The links with Brougham Street to the west and in the centre already appear well planned. The links in the east are not detailed as fully or to the point that it merges with the normal city street network.
In particular, Spokes asks that cycling connections between Brougham Street and the
following are addressed before construction starts:
a. The Tannery (as an easily identifiable waypoint not necessarily a destination) via
a. SH76 from Opawa Rd through to Garlands Rd OR
b. Alternate routes that cater for all of the Strong and Fearless, the Enthused and Confident and the Interested but Concerned
b. Port Hills Rd at its intersection with Laing Crescent
c. Corner of Charles St and Wilsons Rd – the end of Heathcote Expressway Cycleway
d. Major “arterials” that include Montreal Street, Durham St, Colombo St, Gasson St and Waltham Rd – or alternative quieter routes.
https://ccc.govt.nz/transport/cycling/cycling-maps Christchurch cycle map
Submission includes screenshot of link above
For CCC design standards please see CCC’s Major Cycleway Design Guide Design Principles Best Practice Guide Rev B of July 2016 – which can be found on the NZTA website at
Design standards vary by expected traffic volumes. Future traffic volumes are of course currently not known. We do know that there is growing acceptance of the presence of a climate crisis and that active transport is being increasingly encouraged and adopted.
Spokes asks that the shared path (or paths) be:
1) At least 3m wide, and preferably 4m wide. (As noted above we only have sparse data on current cyclist volumes).
2) Constructed of machine-laid bitumen as it is smoother and easier to use.
3) Equipped with cycle sensors that will trigger traffic signals giving cyclists right of way and as much as possible unimpeded flow when crossing roads that intersect the shared path(s).
4) Deviations from a straight-through path (or paths) for cyclists be kept to a minimum in number and tightness of turn. Without exception the current plan shows significant deviations in direction will be required of cyclists at all places where the proposed single shared path crosses roads. The intersection of Brougham Street with Opawa Rd is one of the most extreme in terms of “wriggleness”.
The construction period is over five years. There has already been a cyclist death (October 2019, Springs Rd, Halswell) at an infrastructure build in Christchurch. There must be robust safety provision for those cycling along or across Brougham during this construction period.
Spokes asks that NZTA seek to stage the work so that the shared path(s) is built first and kept separate as much as possible from the rest of the roadworks.
For getting the most safety benefits ASAP Spokes asks that the Collins Street Overbridge is also delivered early in the construction period. If any other overbridges are to be included we ask that these also be delivered early.
The Collins St Overbridge must balance ease of use for all forms of active transport with safety. This obviously means balancing many factors, including:
– Wide paths to avoid conflict
– Shallow gradients to avoid excessive speed
– Allowing access to those with limited mobility
– Fulfilling the multiple desire lines so that users can travel directly to their destinations
Spokes doesn’t have the mandate nor skills to design this but would be prepared to help judge or give input on any designs and/ or to set requirements.
Spokes asks that this bridge be built as early as possible to minimise the need for those crossing Brougham Street in the vicinity having to interact with the roadworks.
Spokes would support a lowering of the speed limit, as lower speeds have been proved to lower the frequency and impact of crashes. But Spokes does note that cyclists and pedestrians are now much better separated from vehicles so at this stage speed of the finished Brougham Street is a not a pressing issue. Obviously, we expect best-practice speed limits during the multi-year period of the roadworks.
T2 and Bus Lane Priority
Spokes supports the idea of the outermost lane in both directions being prioritised for T2 and buses during peak hours and being set aside for parking otherwise.
We note with pleasure that the new on-road parking arrangements outside of T2/bus laning use reduce the significant danger to cyclists that currently travel on Brougham Street itself. The possibility for conflict between cars arriving and departing from the many businesses along Brougham Street is removed entirely as active transport users are now using the much less intensely developed south/hill side of Brougham Street.
Who is Spokes?
Spokes Canterbury (http://www.spokes.org.nz/) is a local cycling advocacy group with approximately 1,200 members and is affiliated with the national Cycling Action Network
(CAN – https://can.org.nz/). Spokes is dedicated to including cycling as an everyday form of transport in the greater Christchurch area.
We would like the opportunity to appear at any public hearing held to consider submissions on these projects. Should there be an officer’s report or similar document(s) we would
appreciate a copy(s).
If you require further information or there are matters requiring clarification, please contact our Submissions Convenor (and Secretary), Chris Abbott in the first instance. His contact
Address: 101B Nayland Street, Christchurch 8081
Phone: 021 654 344
Kind Regards, Chris Abbott
Secretary & Submissions Convenor, Spokes Canterbury
Submitted by email to email@example.com on 28/1/2022 at c.1750 by Chris Abbott.
NB This meets the conditions laid out on https://www.nzta.govt.nz/projects/sh76-brougham-street-upgrade/
“Tell us what you think
“Feedback from the community has helped shape our ideas, but we’d like
to check in one more time before we get started on construction. We’d
like to know if there’s anything else we need to consider. We’ll be taking
feedback until Friday 28 January 2022.”
Appendix 1 Change Log / Version History
27/1/22 v01 Chris Abbott Original Draft
27/1/22 v02 Don Babe Updates (not tracked)
28/1/22 v03Final Chris Abbott As submitted